The main objective of teaching the credit module "Physical Methods of Research" is to form students with the necessary theoretical knowledge and practical skills regarding:
- use of devices and methods for measuring the characteristics of concentrated energy sources
- use of devices and methods for measuring various properties of materials
- investigation of physical processes occurring in the interaction of concentrated energy flows with materials.

After completing the course, students must demonstrate the following learning outcomes:
- knowledge of the principles of the choice of research objects;
- knowledge of measurement methods;
- structure and principles of measuring equipment;
- methods of processing the measurements results;
- ability to determine the chemical and phase composition of the object;
- to investigate the structure and substructure of the object;
- measure mechanical characteristics and analyze the connection: chemical composition - processing - phase composition - structure - properties.


Summary of lectures (UKR, PDF)

Chapter 1. Physical methods of research.
Topic 1.1. General characteristics and areas of application of physical methods of research. Purpose and objectives of the course. Basic terms and definitions. Basic principles of metrology. Methods of processing the results of observations, measurements. Classification of physical methods of research. Brief description of methods, areas of application. Objects of research, methods of their manufacture. Technology of preparation of micro slips, technological equipment, abrasives and chemical reagents.

Section 2. Structure, phase and elemental composition of materials.
Theme 2.1. Research methods of materials microstructure. Light microscopy. Methods of microstructural analysis. Principle of work and construction of a microscope. Lenses Image defects. Glasses. Lighting systems. Main characteristics of the microscope: magnification, resolution. Methods of light microscopy. Oblique light method. The method of dark field observation. Interference contrast method. Method of phase contrast. Surveillance method in polarized light.
Topic 2.2. Electronic microscopy. Electronic translucent microscopy. Construction and principle of an electron microscope. Foil method. Replication method Rastar electron microscopy. Construction and operation of the raster electron microscope. Sources of information in the range of electronic beam, their characteristics. Method of work in the mode of reflected electrons, absorbed electrons. Auger - spectroscopy. Methods of microstructure research. Fractography. Investigation of dislocations, thin crystal structure. Microanalysis.
Topic 2.3. Methods for determining the phase composition of materials. Crystal structure of materials. Crystallographic planes and their definition. The principle of interaction of X-rays with materials. X-ray structural analysis. Kinds of equipment. Principle of operation and construction of a diffractometer. Camera designs. Method of working with a diffractometer. Determination of phase composition of materials. Method of decoding diffractograms. Definition of separate phase components, quantitative analysis.
Topic 2.4. Determination of elemental composition and distribution of alloying elements and impurities in materials. Methods for determining the chemical composition of materials. Chemical method. Spectral method. X-ray spectral microanalysis. Construction of an X-ray spectral microanalyser. Preparation of objects and methods of research. Locality and accuracy of the method. Possibilities of the RSMA method. Ionic microanalysis: mass spectroscopy of secondary ions. The principle of the method. Spectrometer. Opportunities of the method. Methods of determining the thickness of the coatings, deposited layers, layers with modified structure

Section 3. Methods for determining the physical and mechanical properties of materials.
Topic 3.1. Methods of measuring the hardness of materials. Hardness of materials - definition. Static and dynamic methods for measuring the hardness of materials. Brinel's method. Rockwell Method. Vickers Method. Method of microhardness. The method of scratching. Shore hardness. Knupp hardness. The method of dynamic induction of the indenter.
Topic 3.2. Methods of measuring the mechanical characteristics of materials. Methods of determining the residual macronutrients in the surface layers of materials. The method of layer etching (M. M. Davydenkov), the method of a scroll ring, a holographic method. Methods of measuring the tensile strength of materials. Samples Equipment. Methods of determining the strength of the adhesion of coatings with the base. The method of pins.
Topic 3.3. Methods of determination of wear resistance, heat resistance and corrosion resistance of materials. Tribotechnical characteristics of materials. Ways of wear test. Friction machines. Methods of determination of heat resistance and heat resistance of materials after physical and technical processing. Methods for measuring the characteristics of corrosion resistance of materials. Weight and potentiostatic method for determination of corrosion rate.

Section 4. Methods of research of fast-moving processes.
Theme 4.1. Methods of measuring the heating temperatures of materials under the action of concentrated energy streams. Methods of measuring the temperature during physical and technical processing of materials. Thermocouple method. Pyrometric methods of contactless measurement of thermocouples. Bright pyrometry. Full absorption pyrometers.
Topic 4.2. Hydrodynamic characteristics of processes of interaction of concentrated energy flows with materials. Methods of measuring the velocity of movement of the boundary of the melt and evaporation. Investigation of the gas flow characteristics at gas-laser cutting materials and gas-jet stream under laser sintering.


 Methodical instructions for practical classes, control works and independent work. X-ray analysis of residual stresses (Ukr, PDF)
1. Residual stresses and their influence on the operational properties of machine parts.
2. Conditions, causes and mechanisms of occurrence of residual stresses.
3. Physics of X-rays.
4. Substantiation of choice of X-ray method for measuring residual stresses
5. Diffraction of X-rays on crystalline lattice. Wolf-Bragg formula
6. Crystallographic indices of atomic planes and directions
7. Diffraction spectrum of polycrystalline material.
8. Receipt of the diffraction spectrum in diffractometers with focusing on the Bragg-Brentano
9. Influence of elastic homogeneous stresses in the form of an X-ray diffractogram
10. Selection of diffraction peaks to measure residual stresses
11. Determination of residual stresses by the sin²⁡ψ method
11.1 Theoretical foundations of the method.
11.2. The sequence of measuring the residual stresses in the machine parts
12. Examples of calculation of residual stresses and analysis of mechanisms of their occurrence.
12.1. The processing of technical iron by pulsed laser radiation without the overlap of the ZTV and the melting of the surface
12.2. Treatment of Steel-20 with pulsed laser radiation without overlapping of ZTV and surface melting.
12.3. Laser hardening of steel 65G with solid state Nd-YAG laser continuous action.
12.4 Gas-fired laser surfacing: construction of the diagram of the Zn in the layer
12.5 Combined treatment: laser doping with subsequent ion-plasma nitriding

Methodical instructions for laboratory work on discipline "Physical methods of research". Chemical and phase analysis. (Ukr, PDF)
Laboratory work 1. Determination of the chemical composition of materials by mass spectroscopy of secondary ions
Laboratory work 2. Determination of the chemical composition of materials by X-ray spectral microanalysis
Laboratory work 3. Identification of single-phase substances according to the data on interplanar distances
Laboratory work 5. X-ray structural qualitative phase analysis
Laboratory work 6. Analysis of the stressed state of parts by X-ray diffraction analysis